Rabu, Februari 16, 2011

PELAKSANAAN PERUBAHAN ORGANISASI: Cadangan Pendekatan Kepada Pengurusan.




Selaku pengurus kepada sesebuah organisasi, pihak pengurusan atau pentadbiiran harus bijak mengendalikan perjalanan organisasinya bagi memastikan kelangsungan hidup dan kitaran  operasi relevan dengan matlamat dan objektif organisasinya. Bagi mengekalkannya, pengurus harus sentiasa proaktif dalam mencari penyelesaian dan langkah penambahbaikan bagi setiap kelemahan yang wujud dalam organisasi. Jika perlu, perubahan harus juga dilakukan terhadap organisasi berkenaan.


             Mengurus perubahan dengan berkesan adalah sukar dan kompleks kerana di santa terdapat sesuatu yang berlaku di luar dari kelaziman (Mohd Izham & Sufean 2009).  Namun, bagi melaksanakan perubahan dalam pengurusan pihak pengurusan atau majikan harus mengambil inisiatif untuk memastikan perubahan yang akan dilakukan itu berkesan dan tidak mendatangkan penentangan walaupun mungkin ada di kalangan kakitangannya tidak bersetuju dengan idea perubahan yang akan dilaksanakan.


Apa yang penting perubahan yang hendak dilakukan itu tidak boleh dilakukan melalui paksaan secara tiba-tiba bagi mengelakkan ketegangan (Abdul Aziz Zainal 2008). Untuk itu pengurus perlu mencari dan memilih pendekatan yang sesuai sebelum melakukan sebarang bentuk perubahan. Bob Perry (2008) melalui bukunya menyebut enam pendekatan perubahan bagi menghadapi perubahan yang telah ditetapkan oleh Kotter dan Schlesinger. 

1.     
Pendidikan dan komunikasi.


Salah satu cara terbaik bagi mengatasi halangan untuk berubah adalah; memberitahu dan mendidik tentang usaha perubahan terlebih dahulu. Pendidikan dan komunikasi awal membantu pekerja untuk melihat betapa logiknya dalam usaha perubahan. Ini akan mengurangkan khabar angin yang berkaitan dengan kesan perubahan dalam organisasi.


Pihak pengurusan atasan bukan sahaja mencipta wawasan, tujuan dan strategi perubahan yang ingin dilakukan, tetapi mereka perlu menyampaikan atau memberitahu wawasan dan tujuan perubahan tersebut dengan jelas dan ianya perlu dilakukan berulang-ulang kali.


Memberi didikan atau pengajaran bagi memupuk pemahaman turut  menjadi teras kepada keupayaan kakitangan bahawan untuk memahami keperluan kepada perubahan. Sebagai pemimpin, keupayaan yang tinggi untuk memberi penjelasan, memupuk keyakinan dan menterjemahkan mesej perubahan kepada ahli-ahli organisasi adalah penting (Ab Aziz 2008). Ia adalah langkah bagi mengelakkan wujudnya kekurangan informasi atau maklumat dan analisis yang tidak tepat.




2.    Penyertaan dan penglibatan.


Penyertaan dan penglibatan staf dalam sesebuah organisasi perlu diberi ruang di mana pandangan yang diberikan harus diambil kira atau sekurang-kurangnya digargai (F. Brian 2005). Biasanya melakukan perubahan tanpa penglibatan kakitangan yang lain akan menyebabkan mereka tidak mempunyai maklumat yang lengkap untuk menerima sesuatu perubahan. Ini menjadi sebab kepada adanya penentangan kepada idea perubahan yang dibawa oleh pihak pengurusan.


Apabila pekerja-pekerja bawahan turut dilibatkan dalam proses perubahan, boleh jadi mereka akan lebih untuk menyokong sesuatu perubahan  perubahan daripada menentangnya. Pendekatan ini tentunya akan mengurangkan rintangan kepada pihak pengurusan dan ia akan menjadi lebeh mudah untuk melaksanakan proses perubahan yang diinginkan.


Antara lain, dalam membuat sesuatu perubahan akan ada implikasi terhadap sesebuah organisasi.  Ia mungkin akan dipengaruhi oleh politik, persekitaran ekonomik dan undang-undang (legal) dari luar yang menjadi ancaman kepada perubahan. Maka cadangan untuk mendapatkan sokongan dan penyertaan daripada kumpulan atau personaliti politik yang berpengaruh adalah wajar untuk dilakukan.


3.    Kemudahan dan sokongan.

Jika ada penentangan dalam melaksanakan perubahan, ia mungkin berkaitan dengan masalah penyesuaian dalam organisasi berkenaan. Oleh itu pihak pengurusan harus memberikan sokongan kepada kakitangannya jika wujud sebarang kesukaran dalam menyesuaikan diri dengan perubahan yang berlaku. Ia bagi membolehkan pihak pengurusan dapat mencegah penentangan yang dihadapi daripada perkerja bawahannya. Sokongan pengurusan akan membantu pekerja mengatasi rasa takut dan risau semasa perubahan.


Punca kewujudan penentangan perubahan dalam organisasi adalah disebabkan adanya persepsi dari kalangan kakitangan bawahan akan berlakunya kesan-kesan yang merugikan akibat dari perubahan dalam organisasi. Ini dapat dilakukan dengan membenarkan mereka yang menentang perubahan untuk memberikan idea untuk mencorakkan elemen perubahan yang tertentu yang dilihat dapat memberi ancaman. Atau  mereka yang menentang perubahan harus diberikan insentif untuk meninggalkan syarikat melalui persaraan awal atau persaraan bagi mengelakkan mereka mengalami kesan perubahan. Pendekatan ini sesuai bagi mereka yang menentang perubahan dalam kedudukan mereka yang mempunyai kuasa dalam sesuatu organisasi.


Selain itu. penyediaan keperluan seperti kewangan, bahan dan sumber manusia untuk melaksanakan perubahan mestilah mencukupi. Sokongan moral dan psikologi harus diberikan kepada kakitangan yang terlibat melalui satu rangkaian perhubungan sosial dengan penyelian dan agen perubahan yang lain. Bangunkan kompetensi kakitangan melalui program pendidikan dan latihan untuk meningkatkan pengetahuan baru, kemahiran dan reaksi yang diperlukan oleh proses perubahan tersebut. Ia bagi memastikan keperluan dan kemudahan yang sesuai dengan perkembangan semasa harus diwujudkan (Mohamad najib 2004) untuk melicinkan lagi proses perubahan dalam organisasi.


4.    Perundingan dan kesepakatan.

Perundingan dan kesepakatan merupakan aspek penting dalam setiap proses perubahan. Ketika perubahan hendak dilakukan, pasti akan ada individu atau kumpulan yang enggan mengikuti perubahan seperti mana yang dirancangkan (Rhenald Kasali 2007).


Bagi mempertahankan perubahan yang dilaksanakan pihak pengurusan harus berdepan dengan individu atau kumpulan yang membuat penentangan. Caranya adalah dengan melalui rundingan bersama mereka dengan mengenalpasti masalah atau kehendak yang menyebabkan adanya penentangan terhadap perubahan yang dibawa. Mungkin ada dalam kalangan mereka boleh diberikan sebarang intensif bagi menjayakan perubahan atau menukarkan peranannya dalam mana-mana bahagian dalam organisasi yang sesuaai dengan dirinya selain membuat kesepakatan untuk memberikan ganjaran kepada mereka yang ingin meniggalkan organisasi berkenaan.


Antara lain, pihak pengurs harus memaahami personaliti individu.  Respon yang diberikan dalam pelaksaan perubahan daripada seseorang kakitangan boleh jadi dipengaruhi personalitinya. Perlaksanaan perubahan lebih senang dilakukan jika seorang kakitangan bersifat bertolak ansur, berfikiran terbuka (open-minded) dan dapat bergaul dengan baik. Ini semua boleh berlaku dengan adanya kesepakatan dan perundingan antara pihak pengurusan dan kakitangannya.



5.    Manipulasi dan penyertaan bersama.

Kotter mencadangkan untuk menggunakan pendekatan memanipulasi yang berkesan. Caranya adalah dengan melibatkan mereka yang kelihatan menjadi penentang kepada perubahan dibawa bersama dalam membuat sesuatu keputusan berkaitan organisasi.


Penyertaan bersama dibuat dengan meletakkan seseorang dalam kumpulan perancang pengurusan perubahan sebagai ‘tempelan’ berbanding sebagai pengganti. Ini selalunya melibatkan penyertaan daripada ketua kepada kumpulan penentang perubahan untuk bersama-sama dalam usaha perubahan. Ketua ini akan memberikan peranan simbolik dalam membuat keputusan, tanpa mengancam usaha perubahan.


Namun awas, tektik ini akan gagal sekiranya individu ini berasa dirinya sedang ditipu untuk mengaburi tindakan melaksanakan perubahan, seterusnya ia akan menyebabkan akan semakin menentang berbanding jika golongan penentang ini tidak dimasukkan dalam kepimpinan usaha perubahan.


6.    Paksaan secara implisit dan ekplisit.
Masa itu amat berharga untuk dibiarkan berlalu. Untuk itu sebarang keputusan yang telah diambil harus dilaksanakan mengikut jadualnya. Namun kewujudan orang-orang yang menentang perubahan yang dilaksanakan akan menyebabkan proses itu tergendala.


Lalu sebagai langkah terakhir, pengurus perlu mengambil pendekatan dengan memaksa pekerja secara eksplisit atau implisit agar menerima perubahan. Ia merupakan ancaman (Nurkolis 2003) sebagai langkah untuk memastikan para penentangan itu dapat mengikuti semua agenda perubahan yang dirancang. Di sini perlu dinyatakan dengan jelas bahawa penentangan mereka akan menyebabkan hilangnya pekerjaan, pemecatan, pertukaran pekerja, atau tidak menaikkan pangkat pekerja. 
______________________________________________________________

Ini merupakan sebahagian daripada tugasan kuliah yang saya kemukakan untuk kursus Perubahan Pengurusan Dalam Pendidikan di bawah seliaan Dr.Mohd Izham.

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